The production of natural stone is part art and part science, the convergence
of tradition and technology, a combination of the inspirational and the industrial.
We invite you to join us in this section as we explain all the parts to you.
Understanding how natural stone becomes flooring is easy.
We’ve explained all the basics in this section and urge you to check them
The information below will provide you with an understanding of the product right
from its beginning. That’s important because these are the materials you’ll
be living with and walking on for years should you choose this flooring product.
Plus, perhaps most important, understanding the making of natural stone can help
you be a smarter shopper, help you better determine natural stone flooring value
and keep you within the parameters of your budget.
Natural stone is the world’s oldest flooring.
For millions of years, a combination of heat and pressure created blocks of natural
stone, including granite, marble, travertine, limestone, and slate.
As the earth's crust began to grow and erode, it pushed minerals up from its core,
forming massive rock deposits, which we refer to as “quarries”.
Quarries, the incubators of natural stone.
Quarries are found in many countries throughout the world: Italy, China, Spain,
India, Canada, Mexico and the United States.
There, people who have been quarrying stone for generations, work with precision
and passion, with expert selection skills, and a devotion to their craft that’s
second to none.
They are among the world’s last true artisans and their pride and heritage
runs as deep as the stone they quarry.
However, science also plays a major role at the quarry.
Recent advances in the stone industry’s equipment and technology have greatly
impacted the process of extracting stone from the quarry and installing it in a
Today’s modern tools can accomplish this with speed and efficiency.
Diamonds have changed many facets of stone production.
At the quarry, giant blocks of stone are cut out of the earth with diamond studded,
This diamond wire cutting system has revolutionized the extraction process; a once
laborious and time-consuming manual task.
The blocks of stone are then moved to a processing plant where they are cut into
High speed gang saws are used to slice the blocks into multiple slabs.
A gang saw is fitted with several blades, typically about 12 to 15 feet long, that
make simultaneous parallel cuts.
If you’re wondering what happens to all the heat produced, water cools the
blades while in motion and also helps control the dust.
And would you believe it takes about 2 days for a gang saw to completely cut a 20-ton
block of stone.
Next comes polishing and calibration.
The slabs are sent through a polishing machine that puts the desired finish on the
A polishing machine operates using spindles that rotate polishing pads at high speeds
over the top of the stone.
Most of these polishing machines can produce a number of different finishes, from
a rough, rustic texture to a mirrored polish. These options are another one of the
beauties of natural stone.
During this stage, the slab is also calibrated, meaning its surface is worked down
to a relatively uniform thickness across the length of the material.
Finally, the fabricator makes it fabulous.
At the fabricator’s facility the slab is customized for specific installations.
Edges are shaped and polished. This is done with a series of small saws, or router
bits, which are, again, diamond studded and water-cooled.
They rotate at high speeds and pass across the edge of the slab to shape the sides
into the desired edge detail.
We conclude this section with information on Manufactured Stone.
(Also called Agglomerate Stone.)
This is a synthetic stone made from natural stone chips suspended in a binder such
as cement, epoxy resins or polyester.
Some of the most popular types of Manufactured Stone products are those made mostly
The natural quartz gives the product depth and radiance while at the same time strength
Today, Manufactured Stone is available in a wide array of colors ranging from subtle
neutrals to dazzling bright colors.
Manufactured Stone is scratch resistant but not scratch proof.
It doesn’t require sealing because it’s non-porous. That makes it highly
resistant to staining, very hygienic and maintenance free.
Manufactured Stone is strong, it has four times the flexural strength of granite,
so there’s less chance of chipping or cracking.
Natural stone is a natural in virtually any home.
It complements all the design styles and turns any room into a warm and inviting
living space. We hope the knowledge we’ve shared in this section will motivate
you to look further at this ancient and beautiful product.